EFFECT OF MICRO FINANCE ON POVERTY REDUCTION OF SMALL SCALE FARMERS OF PAKISTAN

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 13 ISSUE 2
Written by Rashid SAEED, Rab Nawaz LODHI, Zaheer Ahmad SAEED

This study revealed the impact of micro finance with regard to poverty alleviation, employment generation opportunities, upraise in the standards of living of the small farmers of Pakistan along with the access of such finances and their financial cost. Small farmers often rely on the loans and finance from the formal and informal sources of finance. There is low rate of sustainability in the micro finance sector. These schemes remain for a small time period. Another challenge is that there is a need of replicable and scalable model. There is also a requirement of formalization of informal credit source which count for higher. There is high need of reducing the ambiguities in obtaining the credit from these sources. With respect to agriculture, the proportion of finance should be increase with the proportion to its contribution to the economy. The data for this study has been collected through a self-structured questionnaire and respondents are small farmers who are availing the micro finance facility for any source; informal, formal or semi – informal. The data collected form 150 respondent from Sahiwal and Multan Region. The data has been analyzed through regression and correlation method with the use of SPSS for checking the relationship and impact of micro finance on the living of poor and employment generation. This paper also concluded that the financial cost of such finances is having significant role on the success of such schemes. The research is a contribution to the financial sector to set their focus according to the quality and quantity of micro credit to the agriculture sector.

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Saeed R., Lodhi R. N., Saeed Z. A. 2013, EFFECT OF MICRO FINANCE ON POVERTY REDUCTION OF SMALL SCALE FARMERS OF PAKISTAN. Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 13 ISSUE 2, PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, 363-368.

EFFECT OF WATER AND FERTILIZATION LEVELS ON BARLEY USING DIFFERENT IRRIGATION SYSTEMS

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 13 ISSUE 2
Written by Asaad DERBALA, Abdelmonem HASHAD

The experimental work was carried out at El-Gemmeiza Agricultural Research Station, Gharbia Governorate, Egypt during 2009/2010 winter growing season to study the effect of using sprinkler irrigation in clay soil condition and barley production. The sprinklers layouts were square and triangular. Also, two irrigation levels and two fertilizers levels were used. The results showed that the amounts of applied water were 5077, 4201 and 3068 m3 ha-1 for flood and sprinkler 100% ETc and 50% ETc, respectively. The highest values of coefficient of uniformity, distribution uniformity and application efficiency of low quarter were achieved by the square layout. Grain yield increased from 4.55 Mg ha-1 with flood to 5.70 Mg ha-1 under sprinkler irrigation with square layout at 100% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Straw yield increased from 5.36 Mg ha-1 with flood to 9.65 Mg ha-1 under sprinkler irrigation with square layout at 100% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Water use efficiency increased from 0.90 kg m-3 with flood to 1.64 kg m-3 under sprinkling method with triangular layout at 50% ETc and 100% fertilizer. Energy use efficiency increased from 13.66 kg kW-1 h-1 with flood to 18.20 kg kW-1 h-1 under sprinkler irrigation with triangular layout at 50% ETc and 100% fertilizer.In conclusion, square layout at 100% ETc with 100% fertilizer gave the best results.

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Derbala A., Hashad A. 2013, EFFECT OF WATER AND FERTILIZATION LEVELS ON BARLEY USING DIFFERENT IRRIGATION SYSTEMS. Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 13 ISSUE 2, PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, 111-118.

EFFECTS OF TOURISM ON THE ROMAN ECONOMY

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 13 ISSUE 2
Written by Dragoş SMEDESCU

Over the past six decades, tourism has experienced continued growth and diversification to become one of the largest and fastest growing economic sectors in the world. Over time, more and more destinations have opened up and invested in tourism development, turning modern tourism into a key driver for socioeconomic progress. According to the European Union’s Statistic Office, the global economic crisis has affected the tourism in Romania. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the economic impact of tourism in the case of Romania, focusing on the effects of Travel & Tourism on the economic impact with the next key factors: Gross domestic product, direct and total contribution; employment, direct and total contribution; by visitor exports and investment, for the year 2012, with estimates and forecast for the years 2013 till 2023.

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Smedescu D. 2013, EFFECTS OF TOURISM ON THE ROMAN ECONOMY. Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 13 ISSUE 2, PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, 389-392.

ELIGIBLE PRODUCTS AND FUNDS ALLOTED TO ENTERPRISES IN ORDER TO INFORM AND PROMOTE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS IN ROMANIA AND THE THIRD COUNTRIES

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 13 ISSUE 2
Written by Iulian ALECU, Valentina TUDOR

The paper aimed to present the promotion and information actions on the agricultural products in the context of the EU and Romanian regulations and the public budget allotted by products and actions. Also, there were pointed out the main aspects regarding the role of agricultural products marketing and the major factors which could influence market price and producers profit. Finally, there were presented the information and promotion actions suitable to the obtaining of the funds.

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Alecu I., Tudor V. 2013, ELIGIBLE PRODUCTS AND FUNDS ALLOTED TO ENTERPRISES IN ORDER TO INFORM AND PROMOTE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS IN ROMANIA AND THE THIRD COUNTRIES. Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 13 ISSUE 2, PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, 445-448.

ENOTOURISM: A NICHE TENDENCY WITHIN THE TOURISM MARKET

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 13 ISSUE 2
Written by Sorin BIBICIOIU, Romeo Cătălin CREŢU

This paper is aimed at establishing the required actions to be taken so as to improve perception on Romanian wine and vine tourism. In the Romanian wine and vine field, the main changes over the last ten years have been the modernization of wineries by maintaining the valuable local grape varieties and replanting soil with resistant and productive varieties, introducing new technologies in wine production processes and local producers’ relocation on the market. Besides all these, technical and material facilities were developed by rehabilitating, modernizing and opening of numerous wine cellars, constructing modern accommodation units within or close to vine areas and implementing marketing programmes aimed at promoting vine areas. The tendencies of hospitality industry corroborated with the change of interest and the perceptions of the tourism products consumers make us reach the following conclusion: enotourism has to be adapted to the innovative market spirit, an efficacious brand strategy has to be defined for the final goal of attracting as many consumers as possible. Eenotourism is that form of tourism which offers great local development opportunities to vineyards areas. To conclude, the study will describe the market features and tendencies, based on a large range of resources and it will present ideas connected to the tourism management and economic policies that may positively or negatively influence this field.

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Bibicioiu S., Creţu R. C. 2013, ENOTOURISM: A NICHE TENDENCY WITHIN THE TOURISM MARKET. Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 13 ISSUE 2, PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, 31-40.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP – A MAJOR FACTOR IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MOLDOVIAN ECONOMY

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 13 ISSUE 2
Written by Liliana GRINCIUC, Aurelia LITVIN

Entrepreneurship is the tendency of a person to organize the business of his own and to run it profitably, using all the qualities of leadership, decisions making and managerial caliber etc. The term “entrepreneur” is often used interchangeably with “entrepreneurship”. But conceptually they are different. In a way, entrepreneur precedes entrepreneurship. It is concerned with the development and coordination of entrepreneurial functions. Entrepreneurship is an abstraction and entrepreneurs are tangible persons. Well designed and controlled research studies on entrepreneurship are very few. If we view entrepreneurship as opposed to management, it becomes still more difficult to define entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship is a role played by or the task performed by the entrepreneur. The central task of the entrepreneur is to take moderate risk and invest money to earn profits by exploiting an opportunity. For this he must possess far-sightedness to perceive an opportunity so that he can exploit it well in time. Although an entrepreneur has to perform diverse functions yet he must manifest many qualities in himself to be a good entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship can be defined as the tendency of mind to take calculated risks with confidence to achieve a pre-determined business or industrial objective. That points out the risk taking ability coupled with decision making.

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Grinciuc L., Litvin A. 2013, ENTREPRENEURSHIP – A MAJOR FACTOR IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MOLDOVIAN ECONOMY. Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 13 ISSUE 2, PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, 175-180.

EUROPEAN PROJECTS AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING FARMERS SKILLS VIA MODERN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 13 ISSUE 2
Written by Zuzana PALKOVA, Pavol SCHWARCZ, Norbert FLORIS, Loreta SCHWARCZOVA, Anna BANDLEROVA

This article presents European projects with the main focus on the improving the skills and competitiveness of farmers by modern information and communication technologies and e-learning methods. Two projects – AVARES - Enhance attractiveness of renewable energy training by virtual reality and NewCAP - New European Standards in the Context of Reformed EU Common Agricultural Policy are projects under the Leonardo da Vinci Transfer of Innovation grant scheme. They try to present new way of vocational education and training in the agrosector. The main aim of the AVARES project is to develop the multimedia learning materials for vocational education and training in the field of agricultural and rural development and application of modern information and communication technologies into vocational education and training. The emphasis is put on the application of modern ICT equipment and technologies, with the main focus on the Virtual reality, 3D visual display and e - learning 2.0 methods. New programming period 2014 – 2020 will bring significant changes within the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) which will have a serious impact on economy especially of larger beneficiaries. The „NewCAP“ project aiming at preparation of actors in rural areas to take the proposed changes in the policy through interactive educational programme.

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Palkova Z., Schwarcz P., Floris N., Schwarczova L., Bandlerova A. 2013, EUROPEAN PROJECTS AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING FARMERS SKILLS VIA MODERN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES. Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 13 ISSUE 2, PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, 449-452.

EVALUATION OF SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY OF AGRICULTURE WITHIN THE CARPATHIANS IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 13 ISSUE 2
Written by Jonel SUBIĆ, Marko JELOČNIK, Marijana JOVANOVIĆ

By transition process, which is presented in the Republic of Serbia for many years, rural areas are also covered in great extent. Changes in national agricultural policy, in terms of orientation towards rural development and multifunctional agriculture, have led to situation that process of development must involve all stakeholders, from governmental institutions, via local community, to population of rural areas. Such approach to rural development could initiate easier integration into international institutions and European Union, as well as to strengthening of cross-border cooperation within the mentioned area of economy. The most part of the Carpathians in the Republic of Serbia is taken by the national park „Đerdap“ and its protected zone. Within the mentioned protected area, sustainable use of agricultural land is based on traditional system of mountain agriculture that provides a high degree of ecological rationality and represents a very good foundation for development of integral and organic production. Opening toward the international community and peculiarly clear commitment of Serbia to European integrations, requires a new definition of role and importance of agricultural sector. Therefore, it is estimated that now is the perfect time for establishment of concrete conceptual framework and Strategy that will answer to key questions within the agro-food sector. In this context, authors’ intention (they are also the members of the research team of IAE Belgrade which is the holder of the project III 46006 - Sustainable agriculture and rural development in function of Republic of Serbia strategic goals achievement within the Danube region) is to evaluate a social sustainability of agriculture in the area of the Carpathians in Serbia. Because of that, research is focused to administrative area of next municipalities: Golubac, Kučevo, Majdanpek, Kladovo and Negotin. Considering microeconomic character of research, it was used the original methodology , which could be useful for each area within the Danube region, providing the significant benefit to public administration and management during decisions-making process. At a given moment, by the authors' methodology, which covers the next criteria: density of agricultural population, density of active agricultural population and density of employees in agriculture. Based on this, it could be established the accurate diagnosis for chosen area, joining the estimation for each set of criteria that fits to the goals of sustainable agriculture in the Danube region.

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Subić J., Jeločnik M., Jovanović M. 2013, EVALUATION OF SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY OF AGRICULTURE WITHIN THE CARPATHIANS IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA. Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 13 ISSUE 2, PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, 411-416.

EVOLUTION OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN ROMANIA AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 13 ISSUE 2
Written by Andreea Daniela PASCU

Organic farming uses sustainable production systems, diversified and balanced to prevent environmental and harvest pollution. In this paper I wish to highlight the opportunities arising from the practice of sustainable agriculture and the efficient management of natural resources in Romania. Sustainable rural development can be achieved with the transition from subsistence agriculture to organic agriculture by building and strengthening competitive small and medium enterprises in rural areas. For this we analyzed empirical data provided by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forests and Rural Developmen and the National Institute of Statistics.The analyzed period covers the years 2006-2011. The organic food market in Romania is contoured by statistical methods and the opportunities and limitations incurred by those who choose this form of exploitation.

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Pascu A. D. 2013, EVOLUTION OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN ROMANIA AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT. Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 13 ISSUE 2, PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, 313-318.

FOOD SECURITY IN A WATER-SCARCE WORLD: MAKING VIRTUAL WATER COMPATIBLE WITH CROP WATER USE AND FOOD TRADE

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 13 ISSUE 2
Written by David Oscar YAWSON, Barry MULHOLLAND, Tom BALL, Sushil MOHAN, Philip WHITE

Virtual water has been proposed as a mechanism with potential to reduce the effects of water scarcity on food security. To evaluate the role of virtual water in reducing the effect of water scarcity on food security, all components of the available water resource in agricultural areas must be quantified to provide a basis for evaluating food imports driven by water scarcity. We refer to this situation as ‘agri-compatible connections’ among water scarcity, virtual water, and food security. To date, this has not been captured in the literature on water scarcity, virtual water flows and food security. The lack of agri-compatibility has rendered the virtual water concept seemingly inconsistent with trade theories and water-food security policy needs. We propose two requirements for achieving agri-compatible connections: (i) the limit of crop production imposed by water scarcity should be captured by quantifying all components of the water available to satisfy specific crop water requirement in the importing economy, and (ii) food import should satisfy ‘water-dependent food security’ need, which is the actual or potential food security gap created by insufficient available water from all sources for crop production (all other things being equal). Further, we propose that agri-compatible water scarcity should capture three key elements: (i) a reflection of aridity or drought potential, (ii) quantification of all the components of water resource available to a given crop at a given locality and time, and (iii) use of crop- and catchment-specific water scarcity factors to evaluate the effect of crop production and virtual water on water scarcity. In this paper, we show the conceptual outlines for the proposed agri-compatible connections. Achieving agri-compatible connections among water scarcity, virtual water and food security will enhance the analysis and understanding of the role of virtual water for food security in the importing economy and water scarcity in the exporting economy. We suggest that achieving agri-compatibility will improve the use of virtual water as a mechanism to reduce existing and future pressures on global food security.

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Yawson D. O., Mulholland B., Ball T., Mohan S., White P. 2013, FOOD SECURITY IN A WATER-SCARCE WORLD: MAKING VIRTUAL WATER COMPATIBLE WITH CROP WATER USE AND FOOD TRADE. Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 13 ISSUE 2, PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, 431-444.


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Copyright 2012. To be cited: Scientific Papers. Series “Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and Rural Development“
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