CONSIDERATIONS ON THE CLIMATE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE AGRICULTURAL YEAR 2011 – 2012 FOR THE MAIZE CROP IN THE CENTRAL BĂRĂGAN PLAIN

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 17 ISSUE 2
Written by Dana Maria (OPREA) CONSTANTIN, Elena BOGAN, Elena GRIGORE, Marina Aurelia ANTONESCU

The maize is a culture of strategic importance for a country’s agriculture. The productivity of the maize crop has significant fluctuations from year to year because of the climate variability, but mostly because of the occurrence of extreme weather events. The aim of this paper is to analyze and correlate the agro-climatic resources with the agrocultural production from the agricultural year 2011 – 2012, in the context of the present and predicted climate changes. The study area is the Central Bărăgan Plain. This area is located in a zone where dryness and drought phenomena are produced and are growing in frequency from the West and South-West to the East and North-East, in accordance with the degree of dryness. Taking into account the precipitation amounts, the agricultural year 2011 – 2012 was a year with a dry pluviometric regime. Therefore, the vegetation stage of the maize crop was medium and weak, in general, resulting an average maize production per hectare lower than in the previous years. Knowing the climate conditions and their impact on the main components of an agricultural system, of the level of yields and quality of the crops provides the possibility to reduce losses by respecting the adequate agricultural technologies.

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(OPREA) CONSTANTIN D.M., BOGAN E., GRIGORE E., ANTONESCU M.A. 2017, CONSIDERATIONS ON THE CLIMATE CHARACTERIZATION OF THE AGRICULTURAL YEAR 2011 – 2012 FOR THE MAIZE CROP IN THE CENTRAL BĂRĂGAN PLAIN. Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 17 ISSUE 2, PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, 51-56.

CONSIDERATIONS ON THE TRENDS OF INTERNATIONAL TOURISM RECEIPTS

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 14 ISSUE 4
Written by Agatha POPESCU

main countries of tourist interest. In the period 1980-2012, the tourism income increased 10.14 times. In 2012, it accounted for USD Billion 1,075, to which Europe contributed by 42.58 %, Asia and the Pacific by 30.13 % and the Americas by 19.77 %. The USA, Spain, France, China, Macau, Italy, Germany, United Kingdom, Hong Kong and Australia are the top 10 countries according to the receipts, earning USD Billion 508.8, which represented 47.55 % of the world tourism income in 2012. The European countries with the highest contribution to tourism revenue are: Spain 12.21 %, France 11.72 %, Italy 8.99 %, Germany 8.32 %, United Kingdom 7.94 %, Turkey 5.60 %, Austria 4.12 %, Switzerland 3.62 %, Sweden 3.36 % and The Netherlands 3.03 %. Their contribution to Europe tourism receipts was 68.97 % in 2012. As a conclusion, international tourism is a very dynamic field of activity with a high contribution to the development of the world economy.

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Agatha POPESCU 2014, CONSIDERATIONS ON THE TRENDS OF INTERNATIONAL TOURISM RECEIPTS. Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 14 ISSUE 4, PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, 201-210.

CONSIDERATIONS ON THE TRENDS OF INTERNATIONAL TOURIST FLOWS

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 14 ISSUE 4
Written by Agatha POPESCU

The paper purpose was the purpose to analyze the flow of international tourists in the period 1980-2012 uisng the empirical data provided by UNWTO. In 2012, tourist arrivals reached 1,035 and in 2030 it is expected to exceed 1,800 million. The market share of main geographical regions in 2012 was the following one: Europe 51.61 %, Asia and the Pacific 22.57 %, the Americas 15.75 %, Africa 5.06 % and the Middle East 5.01 %. The top 10 countries receiving tourists and their market share at world level was the following one: France 8.21 %, the USA 6.63 %, China 5.71 %, Spain 5.71 %, Italy 4.59 %, Turkey 3.53 %, Germany 3 %, United Kingdom 2.90 %, Russia 2.54 %, Malayezia 2.47 %. All these 10 countries were visited by 457.9 million tourists in 2012, representing 45.75 % of the world tourist arrivals. Europe is the main source of international tourists, supplying over 50 % of the world tourists, followed by Asia and the Pacific with 23 %, the Americas with 17 %, the Middle East with 3 % and Africa with 3 %. Europe generates the most important tourism flows

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Agatha POPESCU 2014, CONSIDERATIONS ON THE TRENDS OF INTERNATIONAL TOURIST FLOWS. Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 14 ISSUE 4, PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, 179-192.

CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE CRITERIA OF EFFICIENCY FOR THE CLASSIFICATION OF DAIRY FARMS

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 14 ISSUE 3
Written by Agatha POPESCU, Reta CONDEI

The paper aimed to present several criteria for dairy farms classification using a sample of 8 dairy farms from the Southern Romania whose data were collected for the year 2013. The most important indicator characterizing farm efficiency and size is milk yield because it is has a direct impact on gross margin or profit. Milk production cost should be also taken into account, as it is has a negative impact on the financial results. The application of the point method placed twofarms on the top position: F5 and F3, each one getting 45 points for the criteria taken into account. However, the farm F5 came on the 1st position for milk yield, marketed milk yield, gross product from milk, total gross product per cow and year and gross margin/cow/year and on the 7th position for variable costs, while the farms F3 came on the 3rd position for milk yield and variable cost, on the 2nd position for gross product from milk, total gross product per cow and year, and standard gross margin, and on the 1st position for heifer cost and own mechanical works as well. As a conclusion, dairy farmers should keep under control all the production cost items looking for measures to reduce costs as much as they can without affecting yield performance. Under an increased competition, farmers should pay attention to all the factors stimulating the growth of milk yield, as the higher milk production, the higher financial results.

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Agatha POPESCU, Reta CONDEI 2014, CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE CRITERIA OF EFFICIENCY FOR THE CLASSIFICATION OF DAIRY FARMS . Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 14 ISSUE 3, PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, 253-262.

CONSTRAINS AND CONSENSUS ON WATER USE AND LAND ALLOCATION IN MINOR SCHEME TANKS IN THE DRY ZONE OF SRI LANKA

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 15 ISSUE 4
Written by Naoko OKA, Takeru HIGASHIMAKI, D.D.Prabath WITHARANA, Mekonnen B.WAKEYO

In the dry zone of Sri Lanka, climate change is predicted to exert a severe impact on paddy cultivation. Paddy is cultivated with irrigation water from reservoirs called “tanks”, and decisions regarding water distribution from tanks are made by farmers in cultivation meetings which are held before cultivation seasons. In this study we focused on the bethma practice and other field crops cultivation which are potentially adaptation measures to climate change, but are not actively applied. This study tries to find constraints on applying bethma practice and other field crops (OFC) cultivation for better adaptation to climate change. We investigated the current status of bethma practice and of OFC cultivation, the reasons for the decline of bethma, and the manner in which farmers arrive at a consensus on water and land use. For the investigation we used survey data and observation of a cultivation meeting in a study area. We found that bethma is rarely applied at present and the reason is largely based on human perception of dislike of bethma, due to the unfairness in sharing responsibility in land use. This results in not only the decline of bethma but also disagreement on cultivating OFC with tank water. The lack of mechanism to arrive at a consensus between owners of suitable land and land users is a key constraint to practicing OFC using tank water. When farmers try to adapt climate change through water and land management or OFC cultivation, a new mechanism is necessary to ensure fairness in sharing responsibility for land use.

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Naoko OKA, Takeru HIGASHIMAKI, D.D.Prabath WITHARANA, Mekonnen B.WAKEYO 2015, CONSTRAINS AND CONSENSUS ON WATER USE AND LAND ALLOCATION IN MINOR SCHEME TANKS IN THE DRY ZONE OF SRI LANKA. Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 15 ISSUE 4, PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, 185-190.

CONTRIBUTIONS OF MICROFINANCE INSTITUTIONS TO ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF CASSAVA FARMERS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 14 ISSUE 3
Written by Kingsley Chukwuemeka OBIKE, Charles Kelechukwu OSONDU, Christopher Ogbonna EMEROLE

The study examined contributions of microfinance institutions to economic efficiency of cassava farmers in Abia state, Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was adopted in collecting cross sectional data on a sample size of 240 respondents (120 MFI beneficiaries and 120 non beneficiaries). Primary Data was collected by administering questionnaire on cassava farmers. The result showed that economic efficiency of MFI beneficiaries was influenced by wage rate, price of fertilizer and adjusted Y (output), while wage rate, price of fertilizer and price of cassava cutting s are variables that influenced economic efficiency of non beneficiaries. The t – test analysis confirmed that MFI beneficiaries had higher economic efficiency advantage compared with non beneficiaries. It is recommended that government agricultural policy should take positive steps to reduce interest rate to encourage MFI efforts in providing the necessary platform to encourage higher efficiency in cassava production in Abia state, Nigeria.

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Kingsley Chukwuemeka OBIKE, Charles Kelechukwu OSONDU, Christopher Ogbonna EMEROLE 2014, CONTRIBUTIONS OF MICROFINANCE INSTITUTIONS TO ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF CASSAVA FARMERS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA . Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 14 ISSUE 3, PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, 201-212.

COST AND PROFIT ANALYSIS IN COTTON PRODUCTION IN ŞANLIURFA PROVINCE, TURKEY

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 17 ISSUE 2
Written by Bahri KARLI, Fidan Merve KART, Mevlut GUL, Metin Göksel AKPINAR

Cotton is a strategically important plant, widely grown in 53 countries in the world with a wide area of uses. It is an industrial plant of high economic value with a lot of direct and indirect use in different sectors. Therefore, it provides important contributions to the development of a region or the country in terms of both employment and added value to overall economy. According to the International Cotton Advisory Committee's report on 2015/2016, Turkey ranks ninth in the cotton plantation area, eighth in cotton production, second in cotton yield, fourth in cotton import and fourth in cotton consumption in the world. Cotton is mainly grown in South-eastern Anatolia, Çukurova, Antalya and Aegean regions. In recent years, although the planting area has diminished, production has increased with yield. As Turkish textile industry grew after 1980s, the need for cotton in the textile production has expanded. This lead to decrease in cotton exports and increase in cotton imports. As a matter of fact, Turkey, which is a net cotton exporter until 1991, has become a net importer since 1992. About 48 thousand tons of fiber cotton was exported worth 76 million dollars in 2015, while 803 thousand tons of fiber cotton was imported with 1.24 billion worth. About 2.16 million tonnes of cotton were produced on 416 thousand hectares of land in 2016. When looked at the different regions, it can easily be seen that Şanlıurfa province has an important potential in cotton production. Şanlıurfa province accounted for 43.3% of Turkey's cotton plantations and 40.5% of its production in 2016. In this study, the development of cotton production cost and profitability in the case of Şanlıurfa province where significant cotton production was realized in Turkey was analysed. The data was obtained from the Şanlıurfa Provincial Directorate of Food, Agriculture and Livestock. The dataset covers the period 1996-2016.The cost of cotton production per hectare was calculated as 6,447 TL in 1996 and 6,289 TL in 2016 in real prices. There was a decrease in the cotton production cost. The most important cost elements were land rent and harvest-marketing. The relative profit was calculated as 1.78 for 2016. It can be concluded that it is important to ensure the sustainability of cotton production. The proper treatment of land, the appropriate seed variety, the use of adequate amounts of fertilizer, the correct application of the irrigation and the effective fighting of plant diseases are important factors for sustainability.

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KARLI B., KART F.M., GUL M., AKPINAR M.G. 2017, COST AND PROFIT ANALYSIS IN COTTON PRODUCTION IN ŞANLIURFA PROVINCE, TURKEY. Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 17 ISSUE 2, PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, 207-220.

CROSS BORDER COOPERATION: ROMANIA - BULGARIA

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 17 ISSUE 2
Written by Cristiana SIRBU

The paper aimed to present the European territorial cooperation with an important role in removing obstacles and stimulating cross-border cooperation. More than a third of EU citizens live and work in border regions of Europe. Borders have an impact both directly and indirectly on their lives. Euro-regions consist of sub-regional cooperation which contributes to the development of economic and social cohesion of the geographical border areas including administrative units in neighbouring states and non-EU states. Cooperation in this framework is to create permanent direct links between regions and communities on either side of the border state under the powers of local authorities and in accordance with national legislation.

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SIRBU C. 2017, CROSS BORDER COOPERATION: ROMANIA - BULGARIA. Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 17 ISSUE 2, PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, 337-340.

DAIRY BUSINESS: THE CASE OF BULGARIAN DAIRY CATTLE FARMERS

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 14 ISSUE 3
Written by Tsvetana HARIZANOVA-METODIEVA

The purpose of the study was to explore differences between dairy cattle farmers in Bulgaria, according to certain factors. Information about the social characteristics of the farmers (educational level, gender, and age), and about the farm characteristics (number of cows in the main herd, average milk yield, and the rate of return on investment) was collected. Sixty percent of the farmers were up to 50 years of age. Fifty percent of the farmers had had a secondary education and the rest had gained a university degree. The study found that only one of the 20 farmers was a woman. It was found that the group of farmers with a university degree had lower average age than the group of farmers with secondary school. There was no significant difference in the rate of return between the two groups of farms in terms of the effectiveness of the farm. The difference in the number of cows in the main herd was not significant too. The research identified a need for additional training for farmers in order to reduce their dependence on hired workers. It was found that farmers attend basic courses in the field of agriculture and livestock breeding in order to fill the gap between the existing levels of knowledge of farmers and the necessary skills for the effective management of dairy farms.

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Tsvetana HARIZANOVA-METODIEVA 2014, DAIRY BUSINESS: THE CASE OF BULGARIAN DAIRY CATTLE FARMERS . Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 14 ISSUE 3, PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, 95-102.

DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS APPROACH ON THE EFFICIENT USE OF RURAL HUMAN RESOURCES IN AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY AND CONSTRUCTIONS DURING 2006-2013

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 14 ISSUE 4
Written by Dorel MIHAI, Ion DONA

The paper studied the rural human resources efficiency at regional level by using the DEA nonparametric method (Data Envelopment Analysis). The application of this cutting edge method enables the calculation of efficiency scores based on a series of inputs (occupied population in agriculture, industry and construction) and outputs (gross value added in agriculture, industry and construction). The data regarding the rural human resources are retrieved from the Amigo data base, the regional GVA from Tempo online data base and the analysis is performed by MAXDATA 6.3 Beta program. The results revealed that the majority of the regions reach performance with the current input structure, with the exception of the North-East and North-West regions which need to reduce the number of workers in agriculture and increase the GVA from industry and constructions to support real economic growth.

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Dorel MIHAI, Ion DONA 2014, DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS APPROACH ON THE EFFICIENT USE OF RURAL HUMAN RESOURCES IN AGRICULTURE, INDUSTRY AND CONSTRUCTIONS DURING 2006-2013. Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 14 ISSUE 4, PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, 161-164.


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