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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 20 ISSUE 3
Written by Florin SALA, Cosmin Alin POPESCU, Mihai Valentin HERBEI

Fractal analysis was used to evaluate the degree of agricultural lands fragmentation. An area in the Western Plain, Romania was studied. The image was taken with the RapidEye satellite system. From the basic image, 10 polygons with equal resolution of 735 x 840 pixels were selected. For each studied polygon, the total surface (TS), the number of plots (PN), the average plot area (APA), and the fractal dimension (D) were determined. Fractal analysis was performed using the box counting method. The correlation analysis revealed a moderate, negative, correlation between PN and APA (r=-0.776), strong negative correlation between D and PN (r=-0.871), respectively a very strong, positive, correlation between D and APA (r=0.935). APA variation according to PN was most faithfully described by a smoothing spline model. Variation of fractal dimension D according to PN was described by a polynomial equation of degree 2, in conditions of R2=0.946, p<< 0.01, and the variation of D according to the APA was described by a polynomial equation of degree 2 in conditions of R2=0.939, p<< 0.01. Based on fractal dimension (D), regression analysis made it possible to estimate PN under conditions of R2=0.818, p=0.0025, F=15.782, respectively APA variation under conditions of R2=0.984, p<< 0.001, F=214.86. Based on PCA, PC1 explained 89.441% of variance, and PC2 explained 10.559% of variance. Cluster analysis led to the grouping of the studied cases, in condition of Coph.corr=0.988.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 20 ISSUE 3
Written by Tarek FOUDA

The fourth industrial revolution that the world is witnessing in the field of technology casts a shadow over all aspects of life, which results in new types of distinct and advanced jobs and skills. The successful adoption of these new technologies can boost global productivity to the same extent that personal computers and the Internet achieved during the late 1990s. For investors, the fourth revolution offers opportunities for profit similar to the ones that preceded the ones that preceded it. Indeed, the owners of technology in this early stage of the industrial revolution are asking for very large prices for their technology, and because there are many oryx Data that can not artificial intelligence and robots being able to perform; leaving us an open society of the human element, in order to cope with the rapid changes has to be the transfer of knowledge and enhance leadership skills, creativity, and value judgments and the ability to adapt; to remain the most valuable skill through education, training and professional development. This creates many areas of work related to modern technologies that are rapidly invented by the Fourth Industrial Revolution, so cooperation between academic institutions and economic sectors must be developed to develop human resources capable of keeping pace with the digital transformation resulting from artificial intelligence, which also requires us to be a mirror of societal values and a reflection of them; thus It makes us entrusted with verifying the ethics and legitimacy of artificial intelligence in a way that serves security and occupational safety and serves social and economic goals. the training and education is the primary focus of any future strategy, education has had the greatest impact on the Fourth Industrial Revolution and influencing it, this digital transformation of the industry needs different teaching mechanisms and high-level professional skills; in order to keep pace with the nutrition of robotics systems and the complexities of artificial intelligence and also the future need for interaction skills Digital and communication skills with what's new. The knowledge revolution resulted in a society with special features called the knowledge society, which imposed a set of roles and responsibilities, and thus the transformation of universities in developed countries into investment universities, which made them required to change their structural, financial and administrative policy to change their outputs, which led to increased restrictions on universities, and also imposed competition between Universities in the production of knowledge so that the pressure on universities increased and they need to provide more knowledge because they are the only ones that provide human elements at the highest level to lead the community.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 20 ISSUE 3
Written by Mariyana SHISHKOVA

The LEADER approach/ Community Led - Local Development (CLLD) is one of the most effective tools for rural development at EU level. It enables empowerment of the population, involving all stakeholders in the decisionmaking process. The built trust and the growing role of the Local Action Groups (LAGs), through which the approach is applied, are a prerequisite for LEADER/ CLLD to become a key instrument for tackling the challenges facing the rural areas of Bulgaria. The aim of the study is, based on the analysis of the main factors influencing the results of the implementation of integrated strategies, to outline the opportunities for increasing the number of supported initiatives, as well as to formulate recommendations in the respective field. The study encompasses 34 LAGs operating on the territory of Southern Bulgaria. The results of the regression analysis reveal the following main factors determining the number of supported initiatives under the local development strategies: the experience of the LAGs, the type of strategy (single-fund or multi-fund support) and the ongoing communication with relevant government agencies.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 20 ISSUE 3
Written by Wen XUEZHOU, Rana Yassir HUSSAIN, Haroon HUSSAIN, Muhammad SAAD, Rehan Sohail BUTT

This study aims at investigating, from a perspective of agriculture linked firms, the impact of leverage structure on the probability of corporate financial distress with the moderating role of asset tangibility. A panel data logit regression model used to estimate the relationship between capital structure, debt maturity structure, and financial distress while controlling the effects of acclaimed variables like firm size, taxes, and profitability. The data set consists of 187 agriculture linked non-financial firms listed on the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) over five years (2013-2017). The results reveal that asset tangibility negatively moderates the relationship between debt maturity structure and the probability of financial distress, but no such evidence found for the relationship between capital structure and financial fragility. Results suggest lessening the reliance on short term debt in the leverage structure. This research implies that policymakers at managerial levels should have less reliance on short term debt to abate rollover risk. Productive fixed assets can act as collateral without a considerable rise in associated fixed costs. The current study evaluated the moderating role of tangible assets on the relationship of debt maturity structure and the possibility of financial distress along with the previously addressed link of capital structure and the chances of financial distress. A sample of agriculture-linked corporate entities is also unexplored in previous literature.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 20 ISSUE 3
Written by Nathaniel Siji OLUTEGBE, Mamadou Alpha BAH

The West Africa Agricultural Productivity Programme (WAAPP) is an agricultural and development agenda aimed at reducing hunger and poverty amongst the ECOWAS nations. Maize is an emphasis crop being promoted by the WAAPP, Republic of Guinea. The WAAPP was therefore investigated for Context, Input, Process and Product (CIPP) effectiveness among maize farmers in Mamou, Republic of Guinea. A total of 176 beneficiary maize farmers were selected through a three-stage sampling procedure, and information was obtained using a well-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using mean, t–test and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) at α0.05. Subsidy on fertilizer, supply of improved maize seeds, training on pest management and fertiliser application were the most accessed project deliverables. The context-input, process and product phases of the project objective hierarchy were rated effective, with average yield of 1.37 tonnes/ha among beneficiaries, compared to the national average of 1.29tonnes/ha. Farmers’ perceived effectiveness of the WAAPP significantly correlated with maize yield. Hence, the WAAPP in Guinea is concluded to be characterized by consistency, ensuring that the identified maize production needs were sufficiently addressed, resulting in improved yield.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 20 ISSUE 3
Written by Jessa H. RUALES, Moises Neil V. SERIÑO, Therese C. RATILLA, Jacob G. CUIZON, Wendy C. ENERLAN

Small scale coconut farmers are facing unprecedented challenges when attempting to increase productivity because of the occurrence of extreme weather events and changing climatic conditions. This paper investigates the practices adopted by coconut farmers in response to climate variability and assesses the agricultural practice using an investment lens to evaluate its profitability and potential for scaling up. We use farmers’ survey data complemented with focus group discussion and key informant interviews. Results show that investing in coconut banana intercropping and the use of improved coconut variety are among the potential options that the farmers can adopt. The comparison of these climate smart agricultural practices to conventional coconut farming shows positive incremental benefit and the financial analysis yields positive net present value and higher internal rate of return. These suggest that the adoption of climate smart agricultural practices generates higher farm productivity compared to the conventional farming system. This implies that there is a high potential for improving coconut productivity through scaling up of these feasible options that small-scale farmers can adopt. Considering the capacities of local farming communities, there is a broad scope for government and non-government organizations in enhancing the role of climate smart agricultural practices in coconut farming.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 20 ISSUE 3
Written by Jude CHIKEZIE, Olaoluwa Ayodeji ADEBAYO, E. Olushola ADEDEJI, Olabode L. OMOTAYO, Deji A. JOSHUA, Gbemiga T. KOLAWOLE, John ONIHUNWA

Job satisfaction is an aggregate of employees’ consideration on the sort of work they accomplish, the tasks that make up their activities and work conditions. This study surveyed the job satisfaction of employees in private tourism organizations in Osun State, Nigeria. The technique used in selecting two hundred and eighty six employees in the study area was achieved by using the multistage sampling method. Primary data were picked up on employees’ job satisfaction via a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and mean score were used for to analyse the data. Major employees’ intrinsic (motivator) factors identified were: responsibility (x̅ = 4.31), the work itself (x̅ = 4.15) and recognition (x̅ = 4.13) while major employees’ extrinsic (hygiene) factors identified were: security (x̅ = 4.2), quality of supervision (x̅ = 4.2) and relationship with peers (x̅ = 4.12). The result showed that there was a substantial difference (F = 15.973, p <0.05) in the job satisfaction of employees through the segments of the private tourism organizations. The study established that the job satisfaction of employees are not the similar crosswise the private tourism organizations in the study area. It was suggested that the studied organizations should create better opportunities for personal growth of employees in their organization by ensuring that their work load is manageable.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 20 ISSUE 3
Written by Felix Odemero ACHOJA

Cases of loan diversion among small scale poultry farmer borrowers in Nigeria have occupied central position in both scientific and public debates in recent times. The study examines the evidence of loan diversion as it affects the productivity of poultry farms and the need for extension financial literacy advisory services in Nigeria. Two hundred and forty respondents were randomly selected using multiple stage method. Quantitative and qualitative data were primarily obtained using questionnaire. Parametric and non-parametric statistical tools were used to analyze data. The finding of the study revealed that the surveyed poultry farmers were male (70.42%) with an average age of 46 years, married and operated small scale farms. A good number of the surveyed farmers (86.67%) had obtained loan and diverted varying amounts of the loans. The test of hypothesis indicates that loan diversion exerts a negative and significant effect on poultry agribusiness growth (P< 0.05). Loan diversion is a significant determinant of loan default rate of poultry agribusiness (P< 0.05). The study recommends that poultry farmers should be made to access extension financial literacy advisory services. They should utilize loans for the intended purpose of enhancing poultry productivity and wealth creation in Nigeria.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 20 ISSUE 3
Written by Florin SALA

The study analyzed the interdependence relationship of the production with the physiological indices in vines, under conditions of differentiated fertilization (organic, mineral and foliar fertilizers). The study was carried out within the Fruit and Vine Research Center of BUSAMV Timisoara, 2011-2012 period. Biological material was represented by the 'Silvania' grape variety. Organic fertilizers (manure), complex fertilizers (NPK, 1:1:1), and foliar fertilizers (Fertitel, Cropmax, Waterfert, Calcium chloride) were used. By applying fertilizing resources, 12 experimental variants (T2 - T13) were obtained, and a control variant T1 (Ct) was used. Physiological indices (leaf area - LA, chlorophyll content - Chl), yield per plant (Ypl) and yield per ha (Yha) were determined. The interdependence relationship between LA and Chl was described by a polynomial relation of degree 2, under conditions of R2=0.899, p<<0.001. Regression analysis led to obtaining some models of variation of Ypl depending on LA (R2=0.913, p<<0.001), Ypl according to Chl (R2=0.929, p<<0.001), Yha depending on LA (R2=0.907, p<<0.001), and Yha depending on Chl respectively (R2=0.934, p<<0.001). Multiple regression analysis led to models that described the Ypl and Yha variation depending on the two physiological indices as simultaneous action. Models of the type y = f(x,y) were obtained, under statistical safety conditions (R2=0.998, p<<0.001 for Ypl, and for Yha). Within PCA, PC1 explained 96.806% of variance, and PC2 explained 1.6334% of variance. Cluster analysis led to the grouping of variants under statistical safety conditions (Coph.corr. = 0.843).

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 20 ISSUE 3
Written by Tarek FOUDA, Asaad DERBALA, Adel HELAL, Amina ALBEBANY

The dissimilarity in the engineering characteristics of white mold which leads a difficulty in soybean seeds separating , this difference in the engineering characteristics of the white mold constructions differ according to the degree of infection and the period of storage, which results in irregularly from wide range in shaped white mold constructions which leads to the separation efficiency decreases and repetition of the separation processes. The aim of the study is to decide the engineering properties of American soybean seeds and white mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) imported from the USA to Egypt. The experimental work was carried out until 2018 in the Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanta University, Egypt. The engineering properties can be used in the design and development of handling, transportation, storage and separation equipment. Seed dimensions were tested at moisture levels between 8.85 and 12.30% (wet basis). The results showed that by changing the moisture content the average dimensions of the soybean seeds were changed, respectively, from 5.39 mm to 5.96 mm, and the width from 4.76 mm to 5.16 mm. Thickness changes from 3.98mm to 4.38mm. The size is 55.8 to 71.93mm3, the average geometric diameter is from 4.66 to 5.05mm. Arithmetic average diameter from 4.7 to 5.10 mm. Sphericity decreased from 86.94 to 85.10%. Also, the surface area changed from 68.29 to 80.17 mm 2. On the other hand, the dimensions of the hardening of the white mold ranged according to the place imported, with the length ranging from 5.85 to 20.31 mm, the width from 1.32 to 4.39 mm, the thickness from 0.88 to 3.07 mm, and the size from 9.75 to 75.19 mm3, the mean geometric diameter from 2.64 to 5.22 mm, the arithmetic mean of diameter from 3.02 to 8.07 mm and spherical diameter from 15.98 to 58.81%. Also, the surface ranged from 22 to 85.85 mm 2. These results showed that the difference between the physical properties of soybeans and white rot is not strong in terms of length, width and thickness in this case, which impedes the separation processes.

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© 2019 To be cited: Scientific Papers. Series “Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and Rural Development“.

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