ISSN 2284-7995, ISSN Online 2285-3952


Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 18 ISSUE 3
Written by Agatha POPESCU

The paper analyzed wheat and maize production, export and import in Romania in the period 2007-2016 in order to point out the main trends and factors which sustain the position of the country in the international trade. Index method, comparison method, export/production ratio, export/import ratio, gross exchange index have been determined to characterize efficiency of external trade. Maize and wheat production increased 2.8 times during the last decade, representing 50 % and respectively 38.5 % in cereal production. Romania comes on the 2nd position for maize and on the 5th position for wheat in the EU production. The production growth is due mainly to the large cultivated surface, 4.7 million ha, for these two cereals which represent 85 % of the cultivated area in Romania. But, with 4.1 tonnes maize and 3.9 tonnes wheat per ha, yield is by 42.39 % and respectively 26.22 % lower than the EU average. Romania exported 11 times more maize and 34 times more wheat during the last decade. Also, it imported less maize but more wheat mainly for re-export. Export/Production ratio increased from reached 0.32 for maize and 0.82 for wheat, and Export/Import ratio reached 7.78 for maize and 5.83 for wheat. Export and import value also had a high growth rate, while import had a decline, resulting a positive balance, and this under the decline of export price and increase of import price. As a conclusion, the production growth contributed to the development of export with a benefic effect on the trade balance and Romania's prestige and position as a cereal producer and exporter. To increase yield level, investments are required in new technologies ( machinery, irrigations, high production value hybrids and varieties, fertilization and plant protection). Also, farm size should be increased by joining in associative forms for a more efficient use of capital and human resources and increase economic efficiency.

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© 2019 To be cited: Scientific Papers. Series “Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and Rural Development“.

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