ISSN 2284-7995, ISSN Online 2285-3952
 

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 22 ISSUE 4
Written by Ridwan MUKAILA, Lynda Ogechi EGWUE

Income inequality is a global issue affecting all and sundry across the globe in both developed and developing economies. It could result in a high probability of revolution, high rent-seeking policies, a breakdown of social cohesion and a signal of low democracy. Democracy as a form of government was created to ensure that every citizen enjoys the dividends of government. If this is true, democracy should therefore serve to reduce income inequality in the world. The extent to which this is true for Nigeria is yet to get sufficient research interest. Therefore, this study examined the income inequalities in rural Nigeria before and during the democratic era and measured the contributions of different socio-economic factors to income inequality. This study utilized the General Household Survey Panel and the National Consumers Survey data. This study employed the Gini coefficient, theil index, Lorenz curve, and the regression-based inequality decomposition method as techniques of data analysis. The result revealed that income inequality had decreased by 6% from the pre-democratic era to the current democratic era. The proportion of middle-class population has increased by 1.35%. The years of education contributed the most to total inequality (23.5%), the dependency ratio contributed -15.3%, age contributed -0.59%, household size contributed 6.2%, gender of household head contributed 0.03%, and marital status contributed 0.1% to the total income inequality. There is thus a need to gear programmes and policies to boost the education system, empower women and strengthen democratic institutions to ensure income equality.

[Read full article] [Citation]

MUKAILA R., EGWUE L.O. 2022, ANALYSIS OF RURAL INCOME INEQUALITY IN NIGERIA: BEFORE AND DURING THE DEMOCRATIC ERA. Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 22 ISSUE 4, PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, 443-452.

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 22 ISSUE 4
Written by Cecilia NEAGU, Daniela CREȚU, Andrei Radu IOVA, Oana Roberta CREȚU

In this paper, the variation of the quality indices of the seeds obtained in the period 2021-2022 at an agricultural company is tracked and the factors responsible for the defects found were analyzed. The company under study is based in Mânăstirea commune, Călărași county and has an area of 183.55 ha. From the crops practiced by the society, we analyzed the quality parameters of wheat, corn and barley, the main crops practiced. We carried out an analysis of the quality of the cereals sold within the company, following the values of the most important selection criteria, based on the analysis bulletins owned by the analyzed company. Almost all the qualitative parameters were included within the norms stipulated by STAS, there being small excesses in the case of some, which led to the inclusion of the barley obtained by the company in the grade 2 category.

[Read full article] [Citation]

NEAGU C., CRETU D., IOVA A.R., CRETU O.R. 2022, ANALYSIS OF THE QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS OF THE MAIN CROPS PRACTICED AT AN AGRICULTURAL COMPANY. Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 22 ISSUE 4, PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, 465-470.

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 22 ISSUE 4
Written by Abraham FALOLA, Ridwan MUKAILA, Mujtaba Muhammadu MAHMUD

The paucity of information on the efficiency of organic food crops deters relevant interventions to enhance their production in order to address the health risks associated with inorganic food items. This study, therefore, investigated the technical efficiency, identified the factors influencing the productivity of organic maize farming, and measured the factor efficiency or resource productivityof organic maize farming in Nigeria. This study used data obtained from 480 organic maize farmers and analysed it using descriptive statistics, a stochastic frontier production function, and return to scale. The results revealed that organic maize farms had an average technical efficiency of 0.76, showing there is room for improvement. Organic manure, labour, seeds, education, extension contacts, and farm size significantly contributed to the technical efficiency of organic maize farming production. To improve and maintain the continuity of organic maize farming practices, farmers need to form and belong to farm-based organisations, where government and non-government organisations can support them, to facilitate the promotion of organic-based farming knowledge and obtain financial assistance.

[Read full article] [Citation]

FALOLA A., MUKAILA R., MAHMUD M.M. 2022, ARE SMALL-SCALE ORGANIC MAIZE FARMERS TECHNICALLY EFFICIENT? EVIDENCE FROM NIGERIA. Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 22 ISSUE 4, PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, 217-224.

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 22 ISSUE 4
Written by Radu Lucian PÂNZARU, Dragoș Mihai MEDELETE

Soya, is an important plant due to its plurivalence, taking into account aspects related to its use as an industrial raw material, from the point of view of its use in animal feed, as well as the agro-technical-technological aspects it covers. At the level of the European Union, for the period 2018-2020, soya was grown on an area of over 900,000 ha, generated a total production of about 2,800,000 tons and reached an average production level per unit of production (ha) of 2,996 kg (average of the period analysed). Starting from the physiological peculiarities of the plant, it is found that soya was practiced at the level of 15 states in the European Union. The main Community producers are represented by Italy, Romania and France (Italy – 1,078,270 tonnes respectively 38.42% of the Community total, Romania – 428,813.33 tonnes, share of 15.28% and France – 411,226.67 tonnes respectively 14.66%). In terms of performance per unit of production, Croatia, Greece, Italy, Slovenia and Spain stand out with levels above 3,000 kg/ha. The study presents the producer price situation ($/t). There is a multi-annual Community average of 381.36$/t, with extreme values of 307$/t for Romania (2020) and 566$/t for Spain (2019), and the total amplitude of variation recorded a level of 259$/t. At Community level, the evolution of the indicator is uneven, a phenomenon that is also manifested for the vast majority of the component states.

[Read full article] [Citation]

PANZARU R.L., MEDELETE D.M. 2022, ASPECTS CONCERNING THE PRICE OF SOYA BEANS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION (2018-2020) . Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 22 ISSUE 4, PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, 527-532.

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 22 ISSUE 4
Written by Oluwaremilekun A. ADEBISI, Yetunde D. OGUNSOLA, Babatunde S. JAYEOLA, Temidayo O. OGUNRINDE, Asuquo JONATHAN

Smart agriculture has the potential for economic benefits through increased agricultural productivity, cost efficiency and market opportunities through increased communication; and environmental benefits as this will in turn, lead to greater food security, profitability and sustainability. This article presents the practices and challenges to smart agriculture among commercial arable crop farmers in Southwest, Nigeria considering the forms of digitalization in use, as well as the frequency of usage, period of usage, and challenges to the usage. We randomly sampled 45 commercial arable crop farmers across the southwest states in Nigeria. We made use of Structured questionnaire to extract needed information from the respondents. The data obtained were analysed with descriptive statistics. Our findings showed that the forms of digitalization used by agricultural firms include mobile phone (100%), cloud computing (56%), software (58%), remote sensing (40%), digital marketing (52%), and GIS (35%) while the average period of usage of digitalization was 10years. Our findings also revealed that the main challenges to the use of digitalization are high cost of procurement and installation (93%), low awareness of current state of digitalization in agriculture (84%), limited technical knowhow (78%), poor power supply (67%), and high cost of energy (62%). Although evidence at short-term revealed that smart agriculture has the potential of tackling key development issues such as food insecurity, poor output, poverty, and unemployment; the study showed that there is a need to enlighten agricultural firms of the benefits of smart agriculture, as well as plan and invest on sustainability of digitalization in agriculture to harness its full benefits/potentials.

[Read full article] [Citation]

ADEBISI O.A., OGUNSOLA Y.D., JAYEOLA B.S., OGUNRINDE T.O., JONATHAN A. 2022, ASSESSMENT OF DIGITAL AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES AMONG COMMERCIAL ARABLE CROP FARMERS IN SOUTHWEST, NIGERIA. Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 22 ISSUE 4, PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, 15-20.

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 22 ISSUE 4
Written by Casiana MIHUȚ, Nicoleta MATEOC-SÎRB, Anișoara DUMA COPCEA, Lucian NIȚĂ, Adalbert OKROS, Simona NIȚĂ, Teodor MATEOC-SÎRB, Vlad MIRCOV

The most effective way to enrich the food resources necessary for humanity is to increase agricultural production per hectare, which can be achieved by introducing new cultivars and high-performance hybrids, by improving the cultivation technology, by calculating the need for nutrients in each crop, and by taking into account the crop, the expected productions and the natural fertility of the soil. This paper aims at evaluating the fertilization plans made on a farm in the town of Curtici, Arad County, Romania, in the main agricultural crops: wheat, barley, maize, and rape. During an annual vegetation cycle, there are several pheno-phases that are characterized by a differentiated consumption of nutrients, which determines the application of different types and doses of fertilizers. The farm is equipped with a series of tractors and agricultural machines with which they work the 600 ha of land and provides various mechanization services to different physical and legal people in the area. The main activity of the farm is the cultivation of cereals. The identified soils were chernozem, preluvosol and alluviosol, i.e., soils that have good and very good natural fertility. Following the calculations made, it turned out that the nutrient requirements were 57.08 t/ha of nitrogen, 78.33 t/ha of phosphorus and 29.80 t/ha of potassium. In wheat, the largest quantity in nutrients is in nitrogen, which plays an essential role in the growth phase, after which the requirement of nitrogen decreases. The productions obtained were different depending on the year, the climatic conditions and the doses of fertilizers applied: in wheat, 7.5 t/ha in 2020 and 8.0 t/ha in 2021; in grain maize, 8.0 t/ha in 2020 and 8.2 t/ha in 2021, with an average of 8.1 t/ha; in barley, between 8.1 t/ha in 2020 and 8.1 t/ha in 2021; and in rapeseed, 3.5 t/ha in 2020 and 3.6 t/ha in 2021. It was found that the application of fertilizers in the recommended doses depending on the crop, on plant growth phase, and on the plant, needs increases the production in all four crops in the study. In conclusion, the correct establishment of fertilization plans is the most useful tool in establishing the recommended fertilizers, taking into account both the natural fertility of the soils on the farm, of their plants, of their nutritional needs, of the expected productions and of the expenses necessary to purchase the fertilizers (whether organic or mineral fertilizers). Thus, making early economic decisions related to what we need to cultivate, on what surfaces, to the works involve in each crop, to the quantities of necessary fertilizers and treatments helps purchase the necessary products in due time and at better prices. This is how one saves considerable price differences, resulting in lower production costs and higher profits.

[Read full article] [Citation]

MIHUT C., MATEOC-SIRB N., DUMA COPCEA A., NITA L., OKROS A., NITA S., MATEOC-SIRB T., MIRCOV V. 2022, ASSESSMENT OF FERTILIZATION PLANS ON BASIC CROPS. A CASE STUDY . Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 22 ISSUE 4, PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, 427-432.

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 22 ISSUE 4
Written by Mary Cris F. PLENOS

This paper examines the specific roles of men and women at various phases of fishing activity. There were a total of 266 fisher respondents randomly selected from six identified fishing sites in Leyte, Philippines. Data were gathered through face-to-face interview using a pre-tested questionnaire. Both descriptive statistics and independent sample t-test were carried out to analyze the primary data gathered. Based on the findings, men primarily take part in decision makings pertaining to fishing activity such as fishing time, place, and quantity of fish catch to sell. They also are the in-charge in the preparation of the fishing paraphernalia and the ones who sell and bring the fish catch to their preferred marketing outlets. Meanwhile, women played vital roles in cooking the food for fishing activity and the ones who compute, record and keep the earnings from fishing activity.

[Read full article] [Citation]

PLENOS M.C.F. 2022, ASSESSMENT OF WOMEN’S ROLE IN FISHING ACTIVITY. Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 22 ISSUE 4, PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, 543-548.

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 22 ISSUE 4
Written by Tarek FOUDA, Abd-Elrahman ELRAYES, Abd-Elhameed ELHANAFY

This study discusses the result of a life cycle assessment (LCA) for three Egyptian aquaculture farms categorized as semi-intensive culture. The cradle-to-grave system was used to calculate the overall carbon footprint of fish unit production. The major data came from a study of three feed factories in Egypt, which included a wide range of feed manufacturing and agricultural practises in order to reveal the varied greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Pre-farm, farming, and post-farming were the three stages of the life cycle assessment. Feed manufacture, which was primarily tied to the production and processing of raw materials, was the largest source of GHG emissions for all three processes. GHG emissions were also produced during the transport of raw materials to the factory. GHG emissions were also produced during the transportation of raw materials to manufacturers, as well as feed from factories to fish farms, via ship or road. Energy consumption in feed factories varies due to variances in design technology and manufacturing efficiencies. Feed conversion ratios (FCR) have a significant influence on GHG emissions since more feed is required to produce one kilogramme of fish. The kind of packaging material and energy utilised in the factories had an impact on GHG emissions, as each type had a distinct emission factor (EF). Aside from fingerling production, there are direct and indirect N2O emissions, as well as post-farming operations like packaging, ice serving method, and customer transportation. The conclusions of the investigation revealed that According to the results of the study, the emissions linked with the three farms varied greatly. Hanafy farm had the greatest emissions, with 3.265 kg CO2e/kg fish and 50.917 tonnes CO2e/Season, followed by Hashim farm with 2.259 kg CO2e/kg fish and 45.829 tonnes CO2e/Season, and finally Aly farm with 2.223 kg CO2e/kg fish and 38.864 tonnes CO2e/Season.

[Read full article] [Citation]

FOUDA T., ELRAYES A.E., ELHANAFY A.E. 2022, CARBON FOOTPRINT ESTIMATION IN EGYPTIAN AQUACULTURE FARMS . Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 22 ISSUE 4, PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, 225-238.

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 22 ISSUE 4
Written by Agatha POPESCU, Mirela STANCIU, Valentin ŞERBAN, Horia Nicolae CIOCAN

The paper aimed to analyze cereals production and price at farm gate, also farm inputs prices (seeds, fertilizers, plant protection products, fuel and herbicides) in the EU in the period 2016-2021 and also partially in 2022 in order to identify the trends in the main cereals producing countries France, Germany, Poland, Romania, Italy, Spain and Hungary and to propose a few alternatives to farmers how to adapt to climate change for sustaining production. Eurostat data regarding cereals production and price at farm gate and also prices for farm inputs were used, graphically illustrated including trend regression equation and coefficient of determination. The results pointed out that EU cereals output accounted for 272.6 million tonnes in 2022, being by -8.2% lower than the peak of 2019. Wheat and maize production is 128.19 million tonnes and, respectively, 55.1 million tonnes, meaning lower levels than before. Cereals output declined in the main producing countries: France, Germany, Romania, Spain, Italy, Hungary, but increased in Poland. High temperatures, heat waves, severe and long droughts, low precipitations were the main causes related to climate change. Cereals price at the farm gate increased, and also production costs went up due to the raise in farm input prices which started since 2021 and exploded in 2022. High price for diesel, seeds, fertilizers, plant protection products, herbicides, were recorded compared to their levels in 2015. The highest increase of producer's price ranged between +60.7% in Hungary and +31.8% in Spain. In Romania it was +40%. Compared to 2015, in 2021, the growth rate of farm inputs price was: +15.8% for diesel, +10.8% for seeds, +9.8% for fertilizers, +5,13% for herbicides and +3% for plant protection products. In the future, farmers have to increase production rethinking cereals structure, using more high potential varieties and hybrids, resistant to drought, diseases and pests; to extend biodiversity and use crop rotation to preserve soil nutrients; to implement technologies with fewer inputs and conservative agriculture for assuring the sustainable development of cereals production, protecting environment and preserving biodiversity.

[Read full article] [Citation]

POPESCU A., STANCIU M., SERBAN V., CIOCAN H.N. 2022, CEREALS PRODUCTION AND PRICE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION. Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 22 ISSUE 4, PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, 565-578.

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 22 ISSUE 4
Written by Agatha POPESCU, Cristina TINDECHE, Alina MARCUTA, Liviu MARCUTA, Adelaida HONTUS

The purpose of this research work was to analyze cereals cultivated area, yields, production and price at farm gate in Romania during the last decade, 2012-2021 and also in the year 2022 in order to identify the main trends and causes which affected the performances. The data provided by National Institute of Statistics and Eurostat were processed using indices methods, regression equations and r square, and comparisons between maize and wheat. The results emphasized that, compared to 2012 level, in 2021, Romania achieved 27.79 million tonnes cereals (+116.27%), 14.82 million tonnes maize grains (+149.07%), and 10.43 million tonnes wheat (+96.79%). Maize and wheat represent 92.8% of Romania's cereals production. The high record is explained by the large surfaces cultivated with cereals, accounting for 5.35 million ha in 2021 (-1.6% less than in 2012), of which maize 47.6% and wheat 40.6%, all together 88.2%. Yields are still below the levels achieved by France, Germany, Poland, Italy and Spain, which are its EU main competitors in producing cereals. Compared to 2012, in 2021, cereals yield was 5,188 kg/ha (+120%), maize 5,802 kg grains/ha (+166.16%), wheat 4,797 kg/ha (+78.85%), reflecting the efforts made by farmers to increase production. These results were carried out under the impact of intense climate variations and extreme phenomena like: high air temperatures, heat waves, long droughts, low precipitations. High price volatility for Diesel, seeds, fertilizers, products for plant protection etc had a deep impact on the increase of production costs. Cereals price at the farm gate also increased, under the influence of the unbalance demand/supply ratio in the international market, cereals quotations at the international stock exchange, and hostilities between Russia and Ukraine. Un uncertain future is for the coming agricultural years, when farmers have to strengthen their efforts as their business to survive. They have to set up new technological alternatives for crop structure, cultivated areas, amendments, conservative agriculture, lower farms inputs, environmentally friendly solutions to sustain soil fertility, extend biodiversity, and also to keep production costs under strict control and to assure a lower risk for their business.

[Read full article] [Citation]

POPESCU A., TINDECHE C., MARCUTA A., MARCUTA L., HONTUS A. 2022, CEREALS PRODUCTION BETWEEN CLIMATE CHANGE AND PRICE BOOM IN ROMANIA. Scientific Papers. Series "Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and rural development", Vol. 22 ISSUE 4, PRINT ISSN 2284-7995, 579-594.

Page 1 of 9

The publisher is not responsible for the opinions published in the Volume. They represent the authors’ point of view.

© 2019 To be cited: Scientific Papers. Series “Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and Rural Development“.

Powered by INTELIDEV